Photographing the Unseen – ‘invisible rays’ and vulpine calling-cards

‘Invisible rays’

Objects are ‘seen’ by the action of visible light reflecting from them and into the eye or the camera lens. In October 1910, the RPS Journal published, for the first time photographs taken with ‘invisible rays’, radiation from other parts of the spectrum. (Finney 2010). In principle, what these images show are invisible aspects of their subjects. I have photographed in the near-infrared on film and written about it in the RPS Analogue Group journal (vol2, members subscription only). A problem is the modern ‘infra-red’  films are better described as ‘extended red sensitivity’ as they extend only a short distance into the infrared and are used with a dark red (R72) filter, rather than the totally opaque filter of the discontinued Kodak HIE film. Therefore, photographs taken with these films partly show ‘seen’ as well as unseen aspects of the subject.

Better results can be made with a converted digital camera. Digital sensors are sensitive further into the near-infrared than current films, and cameras typically have a built-in infrared-blocking filter. Several companies offer conversion services, removing the blocking filter and replacing it with some form of IR-passing filter, at a cost in the region of £300 to convert a typical DSLR. As a proof-of-concept exercise, I have bought an IR-converted point-and-shoot compact (£120 from ‘infraready’ trading on eBay), and am pleased with the results. The camera has an 850nm cut-off filter, which means that its range starts some way from where current ‘infrared’ films peter out, and is similar to that of HIE.

The basic shapes ‘seen’ by the camera are the same as we see by visible light, but there are some tonal shifts (in addition to the obvious two) as surface finishes respond differently. The two major effects are the darkening of skies (Rayleigh-scattered blue light has very little IR) and the lightening of foliage due to the Wood effect (internal reflections and scattering of IR in plant cells is similar to visible light in ice crystals, so foliage ‘sparkles’ under infrared (Finney 2010)).

To make this work as a response to the assignment would require some special aspect of the ‘unseen’, rather than simply photographing ordinary scenes and exploiting a cool look. IR is useful in identifying diseased plants, because healthy cells respond differently from diseased cells, but I am unlikely to find sufficient practical examples.

Vulpine calling-cards

Our garden is regularly visited by foxes, but seeing them is rare (and having the opportunity to photograph them is rarer). However, they often leave evidence of their presence as they attack birds and scavenge dustbins, and visit the sheltered verandah on rainy nights.

A set of images of the debris they leave would say something about the (unseen) animals and their habits.

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Reference

Finney, A. (2010). A Century of Infrared Photography. In: R. Reynolds, ed., Portfolio Two, 1st ed. Bath: Royal Photographic Society, pp.110-115.

Photographing the Unseen – a couple of random jottings.

The first topic is one that I have mused on often, and occasionally tried to explain to non-photographers.

A human and a camera ‘see’ things in entirely different ways, which explains why holiday snaps are often disappointing. It is not possible to draw a direct parallel between the human eye and a camera lens.

It is not simply the eye that sees the scene in front of us; it is both eyes, connected to the 30 giganeuron parallel-processing device that we carry between our ears. The eyes scan the scene and the brain maintains in real-time a 360 degree, 3-D, moving, fully-focused, colour HDR model of our visible environment. Of course, the eyes are not the only input to the model; it is augmented by sounds, smells and sensations (temperature, wind, vertigo etc.)

In contrast, the camera produces a 2-D still image with limited depth-of-field. The images it produces are necessarily limited compared with the full experience because they are detached from all of the non-visual sensations. The Moroccan souk no longer has the sounds, buffeting and aromas. The Grand Canyon no longer has the 3-D input and sense of vertigo. It is part of the skill of the photographer that we find devices (differential focus, foreground interest, motion blur etc.) to compensate and add interest.

I was reminded of this by one of Duane Michals’ images that I came across while researching for a previous posting.

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source: dcmooresgallery.com

The text is Michals’ way of introducing the ‘unseen’, those elements of the scene that do not make it into the photographic image.

The second topic is a further idea for a response to the assignment brief.

For reasons that aren’t obvious (even to me), I have been more aware than usual of roadside ‘shrines’ or memorials to people who have died in road accidents. These things are all individual, sometimes just flowers, often adding personal memorabilia, photographs and cards. These shrines are metaphors for absence, memory, mourning and (perhaps) some anger. Rather than a headstone (which marks where a funeral took place, the shrines mark the place where a person was last alive.

roadside-memorial

There is controversy about these memorials. Some say that they have a positive effect on road safety, as drivers slow down; others say they are a distraction. Local authorities, and highways authorities, have had to develop policies about how to deal with them, linking sensitivity to considerations of safety. Some that I have found will allow memorials to stay in place for 13 months, to allow the family to mark the anniversary of the tragedy, before removing them.

If I pick up on this theme as the basis of Assignment Two, it will have to be more than simply a set of photographs. I envisage a ‘Sectarian Murders’ approach, with accompanying text saying something about the person and/or the circumstances of the death. That will mean reading cards and notes, and trawling contemporary news reports for information.

Exercise – responding to a poem

Choose a poem that resonates with you then interpret it through photographs. Don’t attempt to describe the poem but instead give a sense of the feeling of the poem and the essence it exudes.  (C&N course notes p60)

Time for another admission of philistinism; poetry does not feature particularly large in my life or upbringing. I tend to prefer comic verse and doggerel to more ‘serious’ poetry. One exception, and the only poem ever to make me cry on reading it is Spike Milligan’s The Children of Aberfan, from the 1972 collection, Small Dreams of a Scorpion. I was a primary school child in 1966, the same age of many of those that died, and the news reports gave me nightmares which may explain my reaction when I first came across the poem.

And now they will go wandering
Away from coal black earth,
The clean white children,
holy as the Easter rose,
Away from the empty sludge-filled desks,
Away from the imprisoned spring
that opened its mouth
To breathe air
and moved a black mountain to find it.

 

So,
Away they shall go – the children,
wandering – wondering
more loved
more wanted
than ever.

 

I don’t burn coal any more.

A literal interpretation would not be possible without a logistical exercise on a Geoffrey Crewdson scale (which would be tasteless) but it occurs to me that, in a more general sense, this is a poem about loss of children and the loss of childhood.

My wife has kept the first pair of ‘proper shoes’ that each of our children (now aged 27 to 33) wore; I feel that the empty shoes make a good metaphor for lost or nostalgically-remembered childhood. I tried a series of still-life set-ups in the house and the garden, with varying degrees of success. Here are the contact sheets.

Most of the images in sheets 8 and 9 were intended for a planned composite image involving a fireplace, footprints and shoes but I didn’t follow it up because the footprint images were unsatisfactory and I was very pleased with the still-lifes.

I applied the same post-processing treatment to all the images in an attempt to give a faded, nostalgic feel (white vignette, vaguely high-key processing, warmed-up colour balance and slight desaturation) with a degree of success. This exercise is also a basis for a possible response to Assignment Two (Photographing the Unseen)

My favourite image from the set is below, one of a series with shoes placed in a bed of forget-me-nots (themselves a metaphor for nostalgia and remembrance) and one which I believe captures the essence of Milligan’s second stanza.

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Reference 

Milligan, S. (1972). Small Dreams of a Scorpion. 1st ed. Penguin.

Combining text and image

The course notes introduce three more photographers whose projects intertwine text and image. In these cases, image and text are not inseparable but there is a clear symbiotic relationship – the text effects the reading of the image, and the image gives meaning to the text.

Kaylynn Deveney

The Day-to-Day Life of Albert Hastings is a collaboration between Deveney and her octogenarian neighbour, Bert Hastings. Bert, living alone, had developed a routine and rhythm in life.

In the best Ronseal tradition, this series ‘does what it says on the tin’ and pictures the routine and banality of Bert’s everyday life, but Deveney would then give prints to Bert and he would write a note or a sentence to accompany it: sometimes matter-of-fact, sometimes whimsical.  It could be said that many of the texts are anchorage (“My inevitable cuppa char”) but taken across the entire series, the effect is mainly relay.

Text and image form the context for each other and overall I feel that I know Bert.

Karen Knorr

Gentlemen, in common with Knorr’s other 1980s series Belgravia (encountered early in EYV) and Country Life, is presented as a series of high-quality monochrome prints with accompanying text. Knorr’s text style is unusual, with unconventional capitalisation and a deliberate splitting of the text into short lines giving the appearance of blank verse.

newspapers-are

source: karenknorr.com

Gentlemen presents a caricature of life in the gentlemen’s clubs of St James’ in central London. The text gives a first impression of anchorage but on closer reading is almost pure relay. The series reminded me of the cartoons  of Glen Baxter; although the subject matter is different, the sense of humour and dislocation is very similar.

Duane Michals

Many of Duane Michals’ individual images and short series have the artist’s handwritten text on the face of the image. Mostly, these are rather quirky relay comments (I particularly enjoyed the 1998 series Madam Schrödinger’s Cat, but perhaps that is the Physics A-level speaking) but the two reproduced below show an element of anchorage. Both are rather long texts, in the context of Michals’ other work and both are self-referential – in both cases, they are comments about the nature of the photograph itself and only indirectly about its subject.

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source: http://www.lensculture.com

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source: dcmooresgallery.com

References

DCMooregallery.com. (n.d.). Duane Michals – Artists – DC Moore Gallery. [online] Available at: http://www.dcmooregallery.com/artists/duane-michals/series/photographs-with-text?view=slider#7 [Accessed 15 May 2017].

Deveney, K. (n.d.). The Day to Day Life of Albert Hastings. [online] KayLynn Deveney Photographer. Available at: https://kaylynndeveney.com/the-day-to-day-life-of-albert-hastings/ [Accessed 15 May 2017].

Knorr, K. (2014). Gentlemen | Karen Knorr. [online] Karenknorr.com. Available at: http://karenknorr.com/photography/gentlemen/ [Accessed 15 May 2017].

Strecker, A. (n.d.). Storyteller: The Photographs of Duane Michals – Photographs by Duane Michals | LensCulture. [online] LensCulture. Available at: https://www.lensculture.com/articles/duane-michals-storyteller-the-photographs-of-duane-michals-2 [Accessed 15 May 2017].

Soph-istry (research point)

This posting considers works by two Sophies, or one Sophie (Calle) and one Sophy (Rickett). Although the context of the research point is the relationship between image and text, both works are multimedia installations including other material and other forms of expression.

The moral of ‘Take Care of Yourself’ by Sophie Calle (Chrisafis 2007, Fisher 2009) is that, if you are in a relationship with a conceptual artist, don’t end it with dumping her by email. The title comes from he final sentence of X’s email and the exhibition as a whole represents the infernal ire of the proverbial woman scorned.

Calle showed the letter to 107 women (or 106 women and a parrot), asked each to respond to it according to her own profession and recorded, filmed or displayed the results. The parrot ate it, a sharpshooter shot out the word ‘love’ in the three places it appeared, an actor and a clown gave their own readings, a graphic artist turned it into origami, a copy editor deconstructed the grammar and spelling , and so forth… The exhibition is a mix of photos and text, together with video screens and physical objects (such as the sharpshooters target, with the holes illuminated by LEDs).

One reviewer (Fisher 2009) tells us: ‘Wittgenstein once proposed that “the limits of my language mean the limits of my world.” If that is the case, then Calle’s work translates the broader feminine experience into a formalized world of possibilities. The “answers” are less important than the forms of engagement and investigation, the invitation to construct meaning.’

Sophy Rickett’s ‘Objects in the Field’, by contrast, tackles a seemingly more objective subject – her time as Artist Associate to the Institute of Astronomy at Cambridge University. In particular, there is interaction between Rickett and Dr Roderick Willstrop, a retired astronomer and designer of one of the telescopes in use at the Institute.

The exhibition was a mix of photographs and text, displayed in an environment including historic and ancient astronomical equipment which provides a context. The text, reproduced in full by Johnston (2014) drifts in and out of relevance to the images. The early part deals with Rickett’s childhood experience with optical equipment having her eyes tested and being fitted with glasses; the central part tells of her encounters with Dr Willstrop; the final section is distinctly tangential, describing something seen from a train window.

The images include a set called ‘Observations’, which are prints from a set of negatives produced in Dr Willstrop’s telescope. From an interview with Sharon Boothroyd (2013) Rickett I get the impression that there was a mutual regard and also a mutual im=ncomprehension between the two, “So the work came to be about a kind of symbiosis on the one hand, but on the other there is a real tension, a sense of us resisting one another.  The material in the middle stays the same, but it’s kind of contested, fought over.”  Willstrop saw the photographs as scientific research (albeit out of date) and Rickett saw them as art objects (although checking with Willstrop to ensure that she did not misrepresent them)

The reviews that I found are surprisingly similar, even to sharing the same imprecision about the title. To quote Franchi (2014), although others use almost identical wording, ‘The name of “Objects in the Field” comes from the lexicon used by astronomers and astrophysicists that refers to stars as ‘objects’ and to the sky as ‘the field’.’ Rather than plagiarising each other, I suspect they were all quoting from a press release. In an astronomical context ‘objects’ are not only stars, but also planets, nebulae and comets (all of which feature in the ‘Observations’ series) and ‘the field’ is the field of view of the telescope.

We are asked to comment on how these two bodies of work reflect post modern approaches to narrative. This, of course, means first attempting to understand what is meant by a ‘postmodern approach’. I am assisted by Andy Grundberg’s essay ‘The Crisis of the Real’ as summarised by Ashley la Grange (la Grange 2005). Grundberg notes that ‘post-modernism’ means different things in different artistic media, having originated in architecture.

‘Post-modern’ is an odd term to understand because ‘Modern’ describing a particular period in various arts including photography (roughly the first three-quarters of the 20th century) means something different from ‘modern’ in everyday speech (meaning ‘up to date’ or ‘state-of-the-art’). when modern modes fell out of vogue, it was necessary to invent a term meaning ‘more modern than modern’, hence ‘post-modern’.

Post-modernism, according to Grundberg is a reaction against the certainties implied by Modernism in the various arts (my analogy is the TV programme ‘Tomorrow’s World’ as presented by Judith Hahn, compared with the Raymond Baxter era – but perhaps I am showing my age). Critics argued that post-modernism must debunk or ‘deconstruct’ the myths of the autonomous individual and the individual subject, but they disagree on how to do it. Approaches include mixed media or a feeling that the media do not matter so long as the work is defined in cultural terms (Grundberg, in la Grange 2005, 151).

My impression is that, while post-modernism has manifold forms, the common approach appears to be to look for underlying assumptions or certainties, then to challenge or subvert them. This seems to be what both Calle and Rickett are doing in their own way. Both exhibitions used text (and other media) in a relay relationship with the images, rather than the anchorage that was the norm in earlier times. Both are self-indulgent to some extent (Calle more than Rickett). Both appear to demand that the viewer does some work to extract [his/her own version of] the full meaning.

References

Boothroyd, S. (2013). Sophy Rickett. [online] photoparley. Available at: https://photoparley.wordpress.com/2013/12/03/sophy-rickett/ [Accessed 3 May 2017].

Chrisafis, A. (2007). Interview: Sophie Calle. [online] the Guardian. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2007/jun/16/artnews.art [Accessed 26 Apr. 2017].

Fisher, C. (2009). Sophie Calle: Take Care of Yourself. [online] Brooklynrail.org. Available at: http://brooklynrail.org/2009/06/artseen/take-care-of-yourself [Accessed 26 Apr. 2017].

Franchi, D. (2014). Exhibition Object in the Field by Sophy Rickett at the Grimaldi Gallery, London.. [online] Londonartreviews.com. Available at: https://londonartreviews.com/index.php/private-galleries/136-exhibition-object-in-the-field-by-sophy-rickett-at-the-grimaldi-gallery-london [Accessed 3 May 2017].

Johnston, S. (2014). Sophy Rickett: Objects in the Field. [online] Inside MHS Oxford. Available at: https://blogs.mhs.ox.ac.uk/insidemhs/sophy-rickett-objects-field/ [Accessed 3 May 2017].

la Grange, A. (2005). Basic Critical Theory for Photographers. 1st ed. Oxford: Focal Press.

The Photographers’ Gallery. (2014). Sophy Rickett – Objects in the Field. [online] Available at: https://thephotographersgalleryblog.org.uk/2014/03/19/sophy-rickett-objects-in-the-field/ [Accessed 3 May 2017].

‘Two sides …’ Tutor feedback and response

My tutor, Garry’s, formative feedback on Assignment 1 is here.

Chas BedfordPH4CN-1

It seems that a bit of rework will be necessary on the driver-view images (but, TBH, I had been considering that myself) and a lot more of what my maths teacher used to call ‘showing your workings’ on the process from camera to final images.

Here is an edited version, covering the substantive points; Garry’s notes in blue, my responses in black.

Overall Comments

A great idea for a project subject and theme – it seeks to show the contrasting realities of documentary through an organisation of ‘points-of-view’ both literal and associational.

Things to improve would include more detailed examination (with annotation) showing the process of using a ‘contact sheet’ to explore different approaches, framing, rendering and the selection for a coherent sequence – we don’t see how you got to the final images as much as we would like (contrast snapshot framing with the more considered viewpoints eventually chosen). This is an aspect of ‘reflective learning’ that you can evidence in the learning log but refer to and cross reference to how you got to the final images both conceptually and in form/technique.

This is the equivalent of the maths teacher saying “Show your working”. I try to summarise my selection/editing process in my blog postings, but framing is something that I present as a fait accompli, because I think about it and do it at the same time.

What I need to do is to break down an instinctive action into smaller steps that can be described (I have an analogy with training sailing instructors – tacking is an instinctive action for an experienced sailor but can be broken down into at least eight steps in order to teach a novice). When cropping an image, I think about the eventual proportions of the print, excluding distractions at the edges, and placing the main picture elements within the frame. For purposes of these assignments, I must try to separate the processes.

In addition, personally I would bring in a little bit more ‘lead-in’ in the self evaluation write up included with your images (almost like a ‘statement of Intent’ ) This could include a short introduction to the notion of ‘point of view’ in general (which could include reference drawn from the blog: Wilkie Collins The Moonstone (reliable) and the more unreliable narrator switching of Gone Girl etc. A theme you might want to return to in the future.

This is trickier as we are only given 300 words for the assignment notes and I did not want to get too verbose. I had assumed that the assessors will turn to the blog for background information – provided it is well referenced.

 

Feedback on assignment and supporting work

Demonstration of technical and Visual Skills, Quality of Outcome, Demonstration of Creativity

I would include your blog in the write up for easy reference (to limit going back to the emails). I like the assignment notes downloadable from the blog. but I would include them as a review after the work is presented in the blog. Research should be refection and summarising – so that an assessor doesn’t have to go and look up the link or the material themselves. This is a hard habit to refine but its coming on.

I need some further guidance on this. If I include blog pages as an appendix to the assessment notes, then I am likely to end up with one page of notes and ten of appendices – something that annoys me when I encounter it in my day job. I will do what I need to, to get the assessors on-side but I would not want to annoy them.

• You might want to consider this diary form of the assignments in the assignment tabs (as you have done) and then in ‘refection’ make that the actual ‘learning log’ as such – the blog is the material you have gathered (including assignments) the refection is the actual summarising of what you have found.

• List if necessary the strategies and conversions you have worked with and then contextual info.

I think this means that the appendix should be a precis of the blog pages, rather than a regurgitation.

Technical and visual

These are strong visually when they are ‘strait’ records of the corresponding viewpoints.

• Fully research this difference in ’visual stance’ between snapshot and a more considered strategy (using the camera as a ‘machine’ ) and relate to the subject matter. 

A topic for a future blog posting.

Would you want to refine these images to show a more ‘haphazard’ framing (like Friedlander) ? – so the they look like the actual fleeting glances.

I don’t see anything haphazard in Friedlander’s framing. All of the images I have seen from ‘America by Car’ seem to be carefully composed, shot from a parked car and using the window and screen edges as framing elements. One reason for adopting the fixed framing of the driver view was to keep that formalism.

• Yours are quite considered views from the point of view of driver and passenger (not ‘wrong’ but different form the snapshot idea). So reflect on these two different ‘stances’ and why you have chosen to go down this formal considered viewpoint.

The formal considered viewpoint arises from my cropping of the passenger-view images; the full-frame views are very much ‘snapshots’, given the limited time available to see and shoot them, with haphazard framing and camera angle. This is a matter of personal choice, influenced by my day-job which is technical and analytical – so I want to present something that is ‘finished’ rather than raw and (in my eyes) slapdash. There may also be a ‘camera club influence’ in play; I want to work each image so that the judge has nothing to criticise.

• Do you need the colourised black and white image? what is the motivation for this (can appear ‘gimmicky’). “colour-popping the things that the driver should be paying attention to (traffic lights, signs etc.)”/ Is this the premise of the photographs?

This was a source of self-doubt almost a soon as I pressed ‘send’ on the assignment. The colour-popping was a late idea; my motivation was to show the driver’s focus within the overall view through the windscreen. On reflection, I believe that I either went too far (should have left in in monochrome) or not far enough (should have coloured the road surface, parked cars and other obstructions). I have worked up some alternative treatments and put them up for peer-review on Facebook. My own inclination is to revert to a pure monochrome look.

• By all means both in colour or both in black and white or (as here) contrast the traditional view of ‘reality’ (from humanist photojournalism – the driver’s view in control) in black and white and the passenger (considered moments and a more imaginative landscape she is free to chose ( in colour).

• Do you want to show that there is a photographer at work here? (for this project probably not). Visually ‘expressive’ or stick to a more ‘objective’ strait recording?

A good question, and thank you for making me consider it. My initial view is that the existence of a photograph automatically implies that a photographer (or at least a camera operator) has been at work. I don’t want my work to look random. On the other hand this subject is not one for excessive stylisation, (HDR, texture layers etc.). The ideal (except that it involves mixing metaphors) is a photographer with a light touch on the helm. An objective view, without going all the way down the Becher route – which is another reason to remove the colour-popping.

Depth of Field/focus

Not sure what went wrong with the zone focussing/‘hyper-focal distance’ setting (its different for different kinds of cameras / chip sizes / film). Outline your process here and in the blog. Could you do some tests and include them. Not sure of your camera type .

I am fairly sure that I understand the problem and won’t repeat it. The driver-view camera was a Canon G1X advanced compact. Manual focus is set in software as a shooting-time option, rather than in the settings menu or via a hardware switch. It appears that, after a period of inactivity, some of these options reset themselves. The answer is to re-check the options before shooting or, if as in this case that is not possible, to use a different camera.

Creativity

I don’t agree. “I am aware that course mates have produced more imaginative, or more socially-aware, work” These photographs are documentary strategies informed by research. The more ‘expressive’ work isn’t necessarily suitable here. It is in dialogue with documentary. Just expand a little more on the context and references to the strategies of other practitioners such as Fiedlander (which you have). Say why they use this particular strategy. Look at Robert Frank and Walker Evans as discussed.

Good to know. Thank you.

Contact Sheets

The contact sheet is useful here. If possible use notations ON the sheet (difficult to do digitally).

Can be done by producing contacts as JPG, then marking up in Photoshop or InDesign but this loses the spontaneity of marking-up physical contact sheets. Also an issue with the number of images shot – I prefer to eliminate the no-hopers and produce a long-list for detailed study.

Show the working processes and annotations in the learning log – how did you chose the eventual images? What criteria did you use?

I usually present basic principles. It would appear that more detail is needed.

• Personally, I would have indicated each image – notated on the contact reference into two camps (each one driver and passenger):

The contact sheets for driver and passenger were created separately (shot with different cameras). Mea culpa; on review, I see that I did not present the driver-view contacts in the blog.

• The more Friedlander points of view include parts of the car (so we can see the photographer at work – see Robert Frank in Papageorge’s essay)

• the more contemplative (‘objective’ so the workings of the photographer are hidden so to speak – links with the external ‘window on the world’ of the passenger.

Learning Logs or Blogs/Critical essays

Context

Influence from a meditation of ‘points of view’ is really strong. The Guardian and literature references particularly. Make more of this as you include critical refection on photography and the various visual stances (so you chase subject matter followed by the form that its expressed in). Your reflections on documentary photography ‘truth’, ‘reality’ and viewpoint is well informed (wife not seeing the things that were there) . Compare the competing viewpoints on what ‘documentary’ is how it has developed and isn’t and what its function is. It is not what most students think it is (1930s humanism) anymore.

Documentary style photography: question this and expand your understanding of the difference between:

• 1930’s ‘humanist’ documentary – the definition that most students still carry with them

• Challenges by post-modernism. See Paul Graham, Philip Lorca Di Corcia, Larry Sultan. A very readable account of this change in documentary practice is Ian Walker’s Documentary Fictions (see -Readings).

I have read the Walker piece but must read further. Possible future blog posting.

• self evaluation / reflection is honest and critical. It is a great introduction to critical aspects of photography so show the depth of reading and engagement with ‘documentary’ which has ambiguity and contested definitions. You have’t assumed one particular point of view.

There seem to be as many points of view as there are commentators. I am developing my own position on the question, but haven’t got there yet.

• The ‘meaning’ as such is open to interpretation by the viewer as is the best photography (make the viewer work for it!). So don’t be too literal. The strength is this two sides of the coin as it faces the viewer to re-consider their points of view (but also the means with which to express that – make more of this).

Make more of this critical commentary (using sources, critics, theorists and other practitioners/artists) in subsequent work is the key to having a rounded research-led practice. A good start.

Thank you.

Suggested reading/viewing

Visual Stance

A good example being Frank and Evans, who both looked at similar subject matter (even using the same visual motifs and references) but one ‘snapshot’ and one more considered.

Tod Papageoge’s Essay is worth a read on this: http://www.americansuburbx.com/2010/07/theory-walker-evans-and-robert-frank.html

New Objectivity v Expressionist visual language: http://www.arthistoryarchive.com/arthistory/neuesachlichkeit/arthistory_neuesachlichkeit.html

documentary and documentary style (Walker Evans): http://documentaryfoto.posthaven.com/a-documentary-style

Ian Walker, Documentary Fictions? PDF Enclosed.

Pointers for the next assignment

• Continue this Learning log that records your ‘artistic journey’ which is clearly shown.

• Make more of the developmental and critical choices you make when working with a ‘contact sheet’ study examples (above). Make the contact sheet show the process of decision making and mark making from the different viewpoints Critical analysis of images (as above).

• References to the exercises – and in this particular unit, references to the photographers you have looked at both in the handbook and independently.

• Self Evaluation. Give reasons as to why you believe the outcome is successful/ unsuccessful (see page 19 of the handbook). You have done this but use examples from other practitioners to back up your assertions (i.e. lets see a whole range of work and discussions by photographers on different ways to photograph points of view.

Exercise – alternative captions

All of these images appeared in the Times of 17 April 2017. I have retained the original captions as part of the scans.

The exercise is to write my own captions and comment on how they recontextualise the image. I have attempted to find both anchorage and relay meanings.

Times 20170417003

Surprise winner of Walt Disney lookalike competition.

This caption gives an alternative anchorage, explaining the delight of the crowds but relying on the appearance rather than the identity of the person being celebrated.

“Tomorrow belongs to me”

This caption gives an alternative anchorage for the image, through a relay comment, giving a connoted meaning. It relies on an assumed cultural experience between the winter and the viewer (the crowd scene in the 1972 film ‘Cabaret’) to draw a parallel with Germany in the 1930s and Hitler’s progressive subversion of the democratic process.

There was a young fellow from Ankara …

Another relay comment, relying on some shared cultural experience. In this case, it is a reference to Boris Johnson’s winning entry in the Spectator magazine’s President Erdogan Offensive Poetry competition, and is intended to hold Erdogan up to ridicule.

Times 20170417002

Ghost riders in the sky

A relay caption, echoing the 1948 song of the same title. The horses are in the sky and have no riders.

Firefighter hallucinates after blaze at cannabis farm

This caption gives an alternative anchorage to the image, although the viewer would have to share the subject’s hallucination for it to work. This is an image which is not explicable without some sort of caption, whether the original or one of my alternatives.

Times 20170417001

WW1 veteran promotes the anti-ageing qualities of mud-packs

Notionally an anchorage caption, but with elements of the surreal.

“Mud, mud, glorious mud”

Another quotation from a song (Flanders and Swann, 1956). this caption could be taken as anchorage, explaining the subject’s expression, or as relay – linking to the song and the hippopotamus, which leads to:

I keep thinking it’s Tuesday

This is a sort of ‘second generation relay’ caption, referring back to Paul Crum’s 1937 cartoon but first requiring the viewer to pick up a hippopotamus reference via the mud, the subject’s expression and Flanders and Swann.